The "dark triad" of three personality traits:
McCroskey This paper summarizes recent research on communication apprehension indicating the breadth of the impact of this handicap in interpersonal communication. Drawing upon theoretical propositions generated from previous research, it provides suggestions for future research on the impact of communication apprehension on nonverbal elements in interpersonal communication.
A recent report from the U. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare estimates that about 4, somewhat over ten percent of the 44, young people in public elementary and secondary schools are handicapped.
As significant as these totals are, there is reason to believe that a major category of handicapped young people was overlooked, one that probably includes more people than all of the other categories combined.
These are the young people suffering from the handicap of communication apprehension. The fact that the HEW figures do not include communication apprehension should not come as a surprise.
Relatively little attention has been paid to the problem even by professionals in the field of human communication, and even less by teachers and administrators in the public schools.
The Nature of Communication Apprehension The term "communication apprehension" was coined by McCroskey2 and refers to an anxiety syndrome associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons. This syndrome is similar to "reticence. This, of course, does not mean that the person would never engage in interaction.
Rather the person would choose to do so much less frequently than persons not afflicted with communication Effects of machiavellianism under similar circumstances. Neither the high apprehensive nor the low apprehensive may be aware of this impact.
The apprehensive actually may be happy, in that he or she is able to construct an environment in which to live that prevents communication apprehension from intruding. McCroskey is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Speech Communication at West Virginia University The Effects of Communication Apprehension For many years the field of Speech has been concerned with one manifestation of communication apprehension, state fright in public speaking, and much effort has been directed toward helping people overcome this problem in public speaking courses.
Of course, highly apprehensive students usually avoid such courses whenever possible. Further, if they get into one it is usually a very unpleasant, anxiety-provoking experience which accomplishes little at best and may make the situation worse. However, it has been established that people suffering from communication apprehension also behave differently in small group communication contexts.
Wells and Lashbrook found that high apprehensives interacted less in small groups and, when they interacted, their interactions were less relevant than those of their peers who did not suffer from communication apprehension.
Hamilton found that high apprehensives showed more tension, less interest, and talked less in small groups than low apprehensives.
Quiggins found that high apprehensives were perceived by other group members to be less extroverted, composed, and task-attractive than low apprehensives. Further, low apprehensive group members saw high apprehensives as less competent and socially attractive than other low apprehensives.
It should not come as a surprise, therefore, to find that communication apprehension is also related to school achievement, as measured by standardized tests, since much instruction in our schools is based on group activity.
The next question concerns how many people are affected by this handicap. Since there has been no widespread testing of young people in the public schools, answering this question must depend on generalization from what sample data is available, most of which is drawn from college populations.
On the basis of samples of 1, college students at Michigan State University and 2, college students at Illinois State University, it has been estimated that between 10 and 20 percent of the population suffer from extreme communication apprehension and possibly as many as 20 percent more suffer from communication apprehension to a degree that it has some impact on their communication behavior.
Communication apprehension, then, may be the single most pervasive handicap confronting children in our schools and citizens in our society.
Although methods have been developed and demonstrated to be effective in helping people overcome this handicap, there are only isolated instances where such help is being provided at the present time. Communication Apprehension and Nonverbal Behavior Although research on the effects of communication apprehension is still in its infancy, two recent studies indicate that the impact of this syndrome may be even more pervasive than previously believed.
These studies considered two nonverbal behaviors, both remote from one another and not closely associated to previous research. These behaviors were seating choice in a small group and housing choice. These two behaviors were chosen for study previous research has indicated that seating position in a small group19 and housing proximity20 both have an impact on subsequent communication.Review of Psychopathy.
William D. Tillier; Calgary Alberta; Update: Under construction. and before. Table of contents. 1). Synopsis of Psychopathy.
A listing of psychological research being conducted online. Review of Psychopathy. William D. Tillier; Calgary Alberta; Update: Under construction. and before. Table of contents. 1).
Synopsis of Psychopathy. The Effects of Machiavellianism, Self Disclosure and Feed Back to Differentiate the Perceived Pseudo and Authentic Transformational Leadership Behaviours of the Managers.
A listing of psychological research being conducted online. In business management, micromanagement is a management style whereby a manager closely observes and/or controls the work of his/her subordinates or employees..
Micromanagement is generally considered to have a negative connotation, mainly due to the .